Write your own pre-commit hooks

In one of my previous blog posts I described that using pre-commit hooks makes life easier, it helps you writing better code. When you want to commit your changes, you immediately get a result if your code has met the various criteria the owner of the repository has set. When you google around, you will find various scripts that you can make use in your own setup. But what if you can not find that specific one? Then you will need to create your own hook.

I had to do this as well, not because I had a rare case to solve, I just wanted to learn how to write a hook myself so I can easily expand my own pre-commit library. And it seems out to be very simple. 🙂

Use case

My very basic use case: I want to validate a yaml file and make sure that it is properly formatted.

I found a very basic tool that helped me format an yaml file, named “yamlfmt“. I need to use this tool in a bash script, which you can see here:

#!/usr/bin/env bash
# Will pretty print YAML files.

if which yamlfmt &> /dev/null $? != 0 ; then
    echo "yamlfmt must be installed: pip install yamlfmt"
    exit 1
fi

EXIT_CODE=0

for file in $@; do
  yamlfmt ${file} -w
  if [[ $? -ne 0 ]]
    then  EXIT_CODE=1
          echo $file
  fi
done
exit $EXIT_CODE

First we need to make sure that we check that the tool is installed, otherwise we print an statement on how the user can install the tool. We need to have that tool installed, so we immediately exit the script with an exit code of 1. With that, the “git commit” action will also fail and thus the user needs to take action to install the tool before it can try to commit the changes.

The last part of the script is doing a for loop and will run the “yamlfmt” command on each file that is passed as an argument to the script. With each pre-commit hook, all of the files that are part of the commit are passed as an argument to the script (Not entirely, but we will discuss this a bit further on ;-)). We collect the exit code of the “yamlfmt” command and checks if that will not equals to 0. If that happens, then there will be an issue with the yaml file and we print the name of the file to stdout.

But how does the script know that it should only do yaml files? If we have a text file or png file, this will fail!

First, we need to add this script into a repository that contains other pre-commit hooks scripts. If you don’t have one, or don’t have other scripts is also fine. I have a dedicated repository for that, which you can find here https://github.com/dj-wasabi/pre-commit-hooks. This repository contains all the pre-commit hooks that I use in 1 or more (public) available repositories. We just need to have a git repository where we can store this script and most importantly, we need to store a “.pre-commit-hooks.yaml” file. This file will contain some information about the scripts which we can use in the rest of our repositories.

In order to get the above menionted script work, we store this script inside the “bin” directory in the git repository and name the file “verify-yaml.sh“. It doesn’t have to be specific in the “bin” directory, you can also just place it in the “ROOT” or some other directory, whatever you please. But in the “ROOT” of the git repository we will have to create the “.pre-commit-hooks.yaml” file and we will include the following contents:

- id: verify-yaml
  name: Pretty Print YAML files
  description: Checks YAML files and pretty prints them
  entry: bin/verify-yaml.sh
  language: script
  files: \.(ya?ml)$

There are 2 important keys that requires some additional information (I won’t have to tell you that the “entry” key is the location to the script right? Oh wait, I just did. :)) These are the “id” and the “files“.

The “id” is the value that you need to use in your repositories where you want to make use of the pre-commit hooks. Like with the https://github.com/dj-wasabi/dj-wasabi-release/blob/main/.pre-commit-config.yaml you will see the following:

repos:
- repo: https://github.com/dj-wasabi/pre-commit-hooks
  rev: master
  hooks:
  ...
  - id: verify-yaml
  ...

So every time I do a commit in my “dj-wasabi/dj-wasabi-release” repository, it will execute the pre-commit hook with id “verify-yaml“.

The “files” key in the “.pre-commit-hooks.yaml” entry is when the script should be executed. We only want the script to be executed when the file is a yaml file and not with a text or png file. The “\.(ya?ml)$” makes sure that it only affect files with the file extention “.yml” and “.yaml“.

Thats all folks!

It looks very easy right? Yes it sure is and when you start to work on your own hooks, you will create more. Because I am in a writing mood right now, lets take a look at the following script that I wrote:

#!/usr/bin/env bash
# Do not allow commits on provided branches.


EXITCODE=0
while getopts b: flag
do
    case "${flag}" in
        b) BRANCHES=${OPTARG};;
        *) echo "Unsupported option provided."
           exit 1;;
    esac
done

for BRANCH in $(echo ${BRANCHES} | sed 's/,/ /g');
    do
        if git rev-parse --abbrev-ref HEAD | grep -e ${BRANCH} > /dev/null 2>&1
            then  echo "You are not allowed to commit on ${BRANCH} branch."
                  EXITCODE=1
        fi
done
exit ${EXITCODE}

I don’t want to commit my changes on “master” or on “main“. And yes you can configure in most cases on the remote site (Read: the Git Server, like Bitbucket or Github) that it will not allow pushes to “master” or “main“, but I just want to prevent the commiting to actual take place. Everytime when I commit on a branch that the remote server is not accepting, I have to google for “git commit undo” and look for the command to undo my commit (Because for some reason I can not remember the git undo command :)).

Once I have undo my commit, I will create a proper branch and do the commit and push again. So if I can prevent committing to “master” or “main” with a pre-commit hook, my life will get easier because I don’t have to undo my commit etc! (Wait, wasn’t that the title of the blog post that I have written before this blog post? ) 🙂

If you have any question and or remarks, please let me know. If you have written a hook yourself and you want to show it, let me know as well!

May the hooks be with you!

One thought on “Write your own pre-commit hooks

  1. Pingback: Using pre-commit hooks makes software development life easier | werner-dijkerman.nl

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